CIHM ICMH Microfiche Collection de Series microfiches (l\Aonographs) (monographies) Canadian Inatituto for Historical Microraproductiona / Institut Canadian da microraproductiona iiittoriquaa Technical and Bibliographic Notes / Notes technique et bit)liographiques The Institute has attempted to obtain the t>est original copy available for filming. Features of this copy which may be bibliographically unique, which may alter any of the images in the reproduction, or which may significantly change the usual method of filming are checked below. D D D D D D D n n D D D Coloured covers / Couverture de couleur Covers damaged / CouveiturF endommagee Covers restored and/or laminated / Couverture restaur6e et/ou pelliculde Cover title missing / Le litre de couverture manque Coloured maps / Cartes gtegraphiques en couleur Coloured ink (i.e. ottier ttian blue or black) / Encre de couleur (I.e. autre que bleue ou noire) Cokxjred plates and/or illustratkxe / Planches et/ou illustrations en couleur Bound with other material / Relid avec dautres documents Only edJtksn avallat}le / Seule ddltkxi dtspcnit>le Tight binding may cause shadows or distortion along interior margin / La reliure serrie peut causer de t'ombre ou de la distorsion le long de la marge int^rieure. Blank leaves added during rBstoralions may appear within the text. Whenever possible, these have been omitted from filming / II se peut que certaines pages blarKhes ajoutdes tore dune restauration apparaissent dans le texte, mais, kxsque cela Aait possible, ces pages n'ont pas M fbntes. Addtional ccmments / CommentairBS suppKmentaires: L'Institut a microfilm^ le meilleur examplaire qu'il lui a 6t6 possible de se procurer. Les details de cet exem- plaire qiii sont peut-6tre uniques du point de vue bibll- ographique, qui peuvent modifier une image reproduite. ou qui peuvent exiger une modifications dans la m6th- ode nonnale de f ilmage sont indiqu6s ci-dessous. I I Cokxjred pages / Pages de couleur I I Pages damaged / Pages endommagdss I I Pages restored and/or laminated / ' — ' Pages restauries et/ou pellkajides & Pages dtscok>ur«d, stained or foxed / Pages dteotortes. tacheties ou piqutes r~| Pages detached/ Pages d^ach^es r^ Showthrough/ Transparence □ Quality of print varies / Qualiti inigale de I'impresskin I I Includes supplementary material / ' — ' Comprend du materiel suppiementaire □ Pages wholly or partially obscured by errata slips, tissues, etc., have been refilmed to ensure the bef possible image / Les pages totalement ou partiellement obscurcies par un feuillet d'errata, une pelure, etc., ont M filmtes k nouveau de fa(on & obtenir la mellleure Image possible. [ I Opposing pages with varying colouration or i — I discolourations are filmed twice to ensure the best possible image / Les pages s'opposant ayant des colorations variables ou des dteol- oratkins sont filmtes deux fois afin d'obtenir la meilleur image possible. This ium i- filmad it <lM rtduction ratio dMCkMl taalow/ lax ux 1SX 22X 26X XX J 12X IfX nx 24X 2IX 32X Tha copy filmad hara ha* baan raproduead ttianki to tha ganaroaity of: National Library of Canada L'aiiamplaira film4 lut raproduit grica i la g4n*reaiM da: Bibliotliaque nationala du Canada Tha imagaa appaaring hara ara tha bait quality poMibIa contidaring tha condition and lagibility of tha original copy and in kaaping with tha filming aentraet apacificationa. Lai imagaa auivantaa ont M raproduita* avae la plus grand toin, compta tanu da la condition at da la noital* da l'aiiamplaira film*, at an eenf ormit* avac laa conditions du contrat da flimaga. Original copias in printad papar covan -ra fllmad baginning with tha front covar and anding on tha last paga with a printad or illustraiad impraa- sion. or tha baek covar whan appropriata. All oihar original copiaa ara filmad baginning on tha first paga with a printad or illustratad impraa- sion. and anding on tha last paga with a printad or illuatratad impraaaion. Tha laat racordOu frama on aach microficha shall contain tha symbol -^ Imaaning "CON- TINUED"), or tha symool V Imaaning "END I. whiehavar appliaa. Maps, platas. charts, ate. may ba filmad at diffarant raduction ratios. Thosa too larga to ba antiraly includad in ona axposura ara filmad baginning in tha uppar laft hand cornar. laft to right and top to bottom, as many framas as raquirad. Tha following diagrams illustrata tha mathod: Laa axamplairaa originaux dont la eouvartura an papiar ast imprimOa sent filmte an eommancant par la pramiar plat at an larminant soil par la darnitra paga qui eomporta una amprainta d'imprassion ou d'illustration. soit par la sacond plat, salon la cas. Toua las autras axamplairas originaux aont filmta an eommancant par la pramWra paga qui eomporta una amprainta d'lmpras'ion ou d'illustration at an tarminant par la darnitra paga qui eomporta una talla amprainta. Un daa aymbolaa suivants apparaltra sur la darniira image da cheque microfiche, selon le cas: le symbole ■^ signifie "A 8UIVRE". le symbola ▼ aignitia "FIN ". Las cartes, plenches. tableeux. etc.. peuvent ttre filmts * dee uux do rtduetion diffirenis. Lorsque le document est trop grsnd pour tire reproduit en un soul clich*. il est film* S panir da I'angia supArieur gauche, de gauche t droite. et de haut an bas. an prenant la nombre d'imagea nicesaaire. Laa diagrammea suivants illustrant la metheda. 1 2 3 4 5 6 MKaocorr iisoiution tisi cha«t (ANSI end ISO TEST CHART No. 2) ^IJdli ^ /jPPUEDjVHGE_ln ^K t65J East Uatn SIrsol 3^5 ?,°=^V'*'' '*■• ''''"' '♦60» USA r^S f''6) «2 - OSOO - Phon« ^S C'e) 288 - 5989 - Fo, THE CADET SYSTEM IN SCHOOLS. Then ita Canadian! who object to the introdnction of cadet drill into the schools because they think it develops a spirit of militarism. Experience has proved that thii view is incorrect. Boys thoroughly e^joy cadet work without any direct coisciousness of its rela- tionship to war. The boy thinks only of the immediate effort, the immediate discipline, and the immediate enjoyment, and not of any ultimate and distant possi- bility. This well known psychological principle has a most important bearing on the whole question of the desirability of introducing cadet work into the schools. It ihould be remembered in this connection that soldiera do not cause war. Qrave dissensions hereon nations result from differences between the political and financial leaders of different countries, not from any- thing the soldiers of the rival countries say or do. The soldier is not the war-monger. He is more likely to become the war-victim. There are men who attack those who advocate cadet woric in the schools, and who charge them with approv- ing of "conscription." This charge has absolutely no foundation. The cadet system is a rational substitute for conscription. It avoids all the evils of conscription, and it develops the best elements of human power and character, wl^e at the same time it secures all the supposed advantages of conscription in the most natural and the most thoroughly effective way. Those who attack the principle of univerial training are evidently not aware of the fact that the law of Canada now recog- nizes the principle that all men, with comparatively few exceptions, are responsible for the defence of their country. Between the agee of eighteen and forty-five, inclusive, men are now, by law, liablo to be called upon when necessary to do military service in the defence of their country. There is no logical basis for (■ooil citizenship bnt ihe one that recognize* a man's duties ct riOIOI . <»»• to hii country. There ii n<r proper iTiteiD of tnining in citizenahip that doei not make ell children— «irl« as well as boyi— conscioua of their reaponsibilitiea as individual units in their country. Boya should under- stand that they will become reeponaible for the defence of their homes and their country when they reach the age of eighteen. They should be trained to uae their influence to aroid war; but the fundamental principle ia that they are liable by law to give their services to defend their country when necesaary in return for tli« privilegea they enjoy aa citizena. It is an indefensible moral ideal that a man should enjoy the many rights of citizenship without recogniz- ing hia reaponsibility for the duties of citizenship. The advocate* of a Cadet Syatp' do not wish any change in the law which makea every man between the agea of eighteen and forty-five years reaponsible for the defence of his country. They do, however, regard it a* a griavoua mistake to make all men within these age limits liab'e for military aeivice, as the law now does, without providing in aome way for their training in order that they may be able to render efficient service without the terrible sacrifice of life that would natur- ally result from the rain attempts of maaaes of untrained men to perform the duty required of them. Universal liubility for defence aervice ia unquestion- ably risht Thia being true, it clearly foUowa that all men should, in some way, be prepared to perform the duty laid upon them by their country. The country that demands universal service without providing some adequate syatem of universal training for the men on whom it properly lays the duty is culpably negligent The luoetion to be solved really is : What is the most effective and moat economical syatem for giving uni- versal training? The Oadet System has the following liierits from the national standpoint: — 1. It ia given at a time when lessoi s learned by operative processes are never forgotten. Drill is an operative process. OperatiTe processei are not recorded in the memories, but i' the lives of studonta. ^ 9. It coat* the country lem to train the coming oiticent in the Bchools than in any other way. 3. It interferoii with tliu onlinary ilutios of ui«u leaa than any other poaHiblc plan to havn th<> foundation of military drill given in the ichooln. 4. It qualifies tho -iCn of tho country for more complete military training in mufh Hhortt^r time than it would take to train them without radct training in the achoola. Hen in later years will find tlieir training in military drill to ho mainly reviewiiiR the work they did in school instead of having to 1(':trn tho whole work at maturity. 6. Boys like military drill. From twelve to sixteen years of age, thoy generally like it better than baseball or lacrosse, and because of this fact, it may be used so as to produce the most beneficial offpcti upon character. 6. A Cadet is not a soldier. TTo takes no oath of military senice. He is a boy who, for his own good and the good of his country, is disciplined through wholesome exercises, some of which have had a military origin, and some have not. Any possihio objection to a Cadet Corps applies with equal force to n Boys' Brigade. The following are the general advantages of Cadet training to the Cadets themselTes: — 1. It provides an excellent setting-up drill for boys physically. Boys whose teachers, parents and physicians have tried earnestly to train to sit and to stand properly without success, in most cases respond at once to drill and become h'^w physical types. Drill exercises are good for the general physical development of a boy, but they produce better effects than additional strength and improved health. They give a more dignified bearing, a more graceful carriage of the body and a more definite step. It is not possible to train a boy so that throughout his life ho will stand erect and walk with moro grace and dignity without, at the same time, influencing him morally for good. The physical, the intellectual and the moral natures react on each other. They should be trained in haimony, in order that each individual may rcni-li Ilia boat dcvcloptnont in the three deptrtment* of hi!< nature. Kvcry parent in Cenaila who has had sons nt t)it> IJoyol Military College, ami every man who huB :m't hoya before and aftor their course there, ha§ reooRiilicd f^u extraordinary improvement in hoalth, strength, stature and physique which has folluweu that course. Kvcry man, whatever his party polities, who lias seen the military training In Germany or in Swcilen or Switzerland, teatilies to the improvement in health, sti .iRth, bearing and self-respect wIpVh baa attende^l it. 2. It triiins boys to bo promptlj. definitely, intclli- ircntly and cheerfully obo'lient. There can bo no diversity of opinion in regard to a training that develop? prompt, dcSnito, intelligent and che^fful obedioni'e to reg ^arly constituted authority. There is no other sfhonl process that develops these types of obedience in a boy's character so nattiralW, so effectively and so permanently as drill. 3. It reveals law to a boy, not as a restraining force merely, but os a guiding fo.ce, by enabling him to achieve much more perfect results under law than he could possibly achieve without law. Without the laws that govern its movements, a Company or a Regiment would be an unrelated mass of individuals or a mob; tiiider law, it is a perfect organization, capable of k>zeoutinK a vt.-r complicated series of movements accurately and unitedly, not as individuals but as an organic unity. One of the most essential elements of true mori-1 training is reverence for law La a guiding force. To understand "the perfect law of lilerty." and have a true consciousness of what is meant 'jy "liberty under law," is one of the strongest foundati ms of char- actor. This recognition of law gives a man a deeper and broader conception of his true attitude to his fellow- men and to his duty. 1. It devoliips a boy's genuine patriotism; not an unogant i>r offensive consciousness of national Import- iinoe, but a gcn\jine faith in himself and his country. Sn'-b n fiiith id one of the basic elements of a strong and lialauiud mural character. In many parts of Canada, a t Krt'iit ntiiny forpifrn boys are making a now home. Then iif nc other proccM by which thry can he nin<lo proiiH of their King, their new countrj, their flnit, aiiH the iiiati tulioiia it rcpreaents i.> quicltly and so thoroiiKlil aa by wrarinir the King's uniform, and Iceeping step tn patri- otic Br'tiih-Oanadian music behind the Union Jack as part of a patriotic organization, along with Britiah- Conailinn boys. In this way a patriotic spirit enters a I'oy's htnrt and life. 5, Drill does more ihan de''elop t\\e spirit of patrio- tism. It reveals to i boy his value as a citi/cn, and, therefore, his r*wponsibility for the performance of his duties as a citizen not merely in defence of his country, but in the highest development of hix country in nil dfpjirt:nent8 of national life. fl. Cadet drill helps to make a boy executive, and executive training is the training that gives real practi- cal value to all other kinds o' training. 0: e of the greatest causes of failurr in the fichools of tbi past was the lack of executive training. 7. All modem advances in education ore bnseil on a reverent recognition of tho value cf the individual seal, and of the supreme need of its development. IJrill gi\ 'S a boy nn opportunity to learn the value of individual traini]ig and of individual effort by experience, better than any other school work except organized play, or organ: ^ed work ii Manual Training or some other form of em iloyment. Each boy knows from the first that the standing of the Company depends on the work of oach individual boy. He knov/s also Lhat bis failure bringa discredit on his Company. This knowledge will, in due time, reveal to him the need of his life work to aid bis community and his country to rteir highest develop- ment. 8. Drill refines in a boy's mind the need of active eo-operation Tvith his fellows — boys and men. It is very important that each man shall become consciouH of the value of his own individuality. It is much more important ihat lie learn bis supreme value as « social iiiilt, ns out wnrkinp with and for humanity. The true ideals of social unity and social relationship cunnot be .■ommunicated vitally to children or to adults by worU '■i' ^-t effort, in han, ,;;„;:""' "',"""'''« '""h »• "rill train, n b.^ T„ ,. ' '■;";'"'•■" " •"""• clothing „„.! Z^rj^TZ. "f ^'•"""■"^ '" ■"■ <^h"act.,. " '' '" "» ""Portant ekniTOt in '"pi^\Z%'^y'['Z''''r-' ': '■«■""'•«"!<' qa.d- drill in ..hool. fo,,rrr '"/•""" of milium f"ini..K i,, therefore be efi. ' Jl'T -"l "'■*■ The break „f war. or «n^ nl!^ f" ' "P"'* '''<"•' «nT out- (Rev.) Nat.u„k,. R„„« (Very Rev.) D. Mi.VK,, (;„„,„,. ^, ^ Uii.vorsu.y. Kinffs.on, ()„i ^ " (Kev.) Canon G. Dautii /;"-f "'"^ i"-"' Uni„r.Uy, Montreal (Rev.) H. J. CoDv, D.D„ LL.D., Ke». ^rcAifeacon, Toronto. (Kev.) J. W. Maomulan, D.D, Pastor. Presbyterian Church, Halifax. (Rev.) Solomon Jacobs, Rabbi, Holy Blossom Synagogu,,Toronto. (Rev.) T. Cbawfobd Brown, MA """"■chZhXit:'"''''-'^"^'^ j •I (R«T.) r,. MlNEIIAH, Pulor, 8t. rtter-$ Ckureh. Toronh. IfAURirj nilTTOH, M.A., Principal, Univrnih, ColUg; Toronto. Waltir Jauei BiinwN, Aylner, Onl. Jo'iN A. CiKirKB, M.A., Toronto. Jahks L. Huuiics, Chief Imprclor of Sck...jti, Turonlo, Chairman.